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Why we need to learn CPR

If you have family member/friends who have heart diseases, we recommend you to learn Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In case heart attack has occurred, the patient will become unconscious and absent of breathing and pulse. If you are able to perform CPR on the patient timely and properly until the arrival of ambulance crew, he/she may regain his/her heartbeat and breathing and have a better chance of survival.
In countries like USA, Canada and Australia, there are CPR courses designed for family members of high-risk cardiac patients. Researches indicate that these CPR trainees are able to display a positive attitude towards learning CPR and master the essential techniques in applying CPR confidently.


How to sign up for the Community CPR training course organized by FSD?

Hong Kong Fire Services Department has launched a Community CPR training programme which is free of charge. Please call the Fire and Ambulance Services Academy at 2640 3708 for details and specify yourself as "family member of cardiac patient".


Q3. What are the basic principles in the care of the elderly?

For the human, physiological and psychological changes occur with aging. When we are caring for the elderly patients, we should deal appropriately with these changes. This pamphlet aims at introducing some physiological and psychological condition of the elderly, and also the “basic principles” for caring the elderly: patience and respect.


Q4. How to prevent children and toddlers from falls?


Unstable gait of the toddler, presence of objects on floor, lack of supervision, curiosity of the children, etc.


  • Keep floors free of toys and obstructions.
  • Exercise close supervision when toddler learns to walk.
  • Never leave babies unattended on raised surfaces.
  • Check constantly floor surface for wear and tear.
  • Keep floor dry.
  • Always ensure bed-rail of the baby cot is raised when the baby is in the cot.
  • Always use a securely fitted safety harness in a pram, pushchair or highchair.
  • Windows and doors must be locked to avoid misadventure by children.
  • Avoid placing “step-stones” such as a chair next to a window.
  • Take extra care to avoid side-turning of a baby chair.


    How to prevent children and toddlers from choking?


    Accidental swallowing of foreign body, strangulation, covering of head by blankets, accidental suffocation by pillow while baby sleeps in a prone position, near-drowning etc.


    • Choose toys appropriate to the age of children. Avoid toys with detachable small parts.
    • Ensure small objects are kept out of reach of children.
    • Pull cords on curtains and blinds should be kept short and out of reach of children.
    • Strings and plastic bags should be kept out of reach of children.
    • Foldable furniture should be properly placed and locked. Instruct children not to play with them.
    • Instruct children not to play while eating.
    • Never let children use milk bottle by themselves without adult’s supervision.
    • Never use pillow for baby under one year of age. Do not use large and heavy blanket.Never let the blanket cover the face of children during sleep.
    • Avoid sleeping with baby on the same bed.
    • Children, especially baby, should sleep in a lateral position rather than supine.
    • Avoid sleeping on a mattress on the floor. The head of the baby may get dangling outside the mattress, causing injury to the neck and thus suffocation.
    • Never leave children alone in a bath tub or basin filled with water.
    • Bucket filled with water must be covered and keep children away from it.
      How to prevent elderly persons from fall at home?


      Environmental factors, gait instability, impaired vision, etc.


      • Keep floors free of obstructions.
      • Ensure adequate lighting in household area.
      • Avoid stepping on foldable chair.
      • Keep floor dry. Constantly check floor surface for any wear and tear.
      • Avoid standing on “step” next to windows when posting out bamboo to sun dry clothing.
      • Place non-slippery mattress on the floor of bathroom.
      • Exercise regularly to strengthen gait and power.
      • Ensure length of trousers and shirts not being too long.
      • Ensure a balanced gait during walking. Walk slowly. If necessary, use walking aids.
      • Use suitable corrective lens to ensure a good vision.


        Q7. How to prevent Heatstroke?
        1. Avoid undergoing prolonged strenuous activity in hot and humid weather as far as possible.
        2. If it is unavoidable for you to work in a hot environment, you should take the following precautionary measures:
          • wear light-weight, loose-fitting clothing
          • take rest in a cool place intermittently
          • replenish body fluid by regularly taking lightly-salted water or fruit juice
          • not to consume alcoholic beverages
          Q8. What are the causes of seizures?

          There are different types of seizures, and they can be caused by many factors including:

          • Epilepsy
          • Fever
          • Heatstroke
          • Poisoning
          • Alcohol intoxication
          • Hypoglycemia
          • Head injury
          • Cancer
          • Stroke
          • Complications of pregnancy
          • Unknown causes

            Q9. How to treat a convulsing person?

            When you witness a seizure

            • Stay calm. Remember you cannot stop a seizure once it has started.
            • Keep the patient from falling and assist him/her to lie down
            • Roll the patient on his/her side to drain any saliva or blood from mouth
            • Clear the area of hard, sharp, or hot objects to protect the patient from injury.
            • Loosen the patient’s tight neckwear.

            Do not:

            • Do not restrain the movement of patient as this may cause injury to the patient
            • Do not put anything between his/her teeth as this may result in dental damage or aspiration or injury to your intervening materials e.g. fingers.


              What shall you do when you come by a person who is unconscious?

              If you come by a person who is unconscious
              you should:

              • Stay calm and dial ‘ 999 ’ for an ambulance immediately
              • Roll the victim on his/her side to drain any saliva or vomitus from mouth
              • Loosen any constricting clothing around the neck, chest and waist.
              • Keep the patient warm and cover the patient with blanket or clothing
              • Stay with the patient until the ambulance personnel arrive

              Do not:

              • Do not place anything such as pillow under the patient’s head
              • Do not sit him/her up
              • Do not give him/her anything by mouth
                What is “EMA Ambulance” and what kind of service is it providing?

                EMA – Emergency Medical Assistant provides the level of paramedic ambulance care equivalent to that of British Columbia in Canada. EMA ambulances are equipped with medications for chest pain & asthmatic attack, normal saline and dextrose fluid infusion as well as Narcan injection for overdosed patients. Some EMA ambulances are also equipped with drugs for children epilepsy and hypersensitivity, as well as advanced airway adjuncts for cardiac arrest patients.


                Would one receive earlier medical consultation when he/she is conveyed by ambulance to the Accident & Emergency Department of hospital?

                No. All Accident & Emergency Departments in hospitals of the Hospital Authority have adopted the triage system, which classify patients according to their conditions. Despite being conveyed by ambulances, patients may be classified as semi-urgent or non-urgent by hospital staff, who may then need to wait for a longer time.


                Is non-emergency ambulance service provided by the Fire Services Department?

                No. Non-emergency ambulance service in Hong Kong is provided by the Hospital Authority and some voluntary organizations whereas emergency ambulance service is provided by the Fire Services Department.


                What is the duty shift pattern of ambulancemen?

                The duty shift pattern of most ambulancemen is: Two “Day Shift”, then one “Night Shift” followed by two “Day Off”. Day shift starts from 8:30 am and ends at 8:30 pm. Night shift starts from 8:30 pm and ends at 8:30 am the next morning.


                Apart from ambulance aid knowledge and skills, what do ambulancemen learn?

                Apart from ambulance aid knowledge and skills, ambulancemen also learn mountain rescue technique, ambulance driving, emotional quotient (EQ), etc. Some ambulancemen would be arranged to have specialized skill training such as Special Rescue Squad Training, Breaking-in skills training, etc.


                On average, how many emergency patients are treated by ambulancemen every day?

                On average, about 2,048 emergency patients were treated by ambulancemen every day. In the year 2014, a total of 747,437 ambulance calls had been handled.


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                Last revision date: 2-04-2015